Limestone

History of Limestone


Limestone cladding has become more and more famous around the world over the past few years. It belongs to the category of sedimentary rocks as well as porous in nature. Limestone is made up of a lot of calcium carbonate layers, which is constructed from the accumulating of organic material under the deep water, and then become a limestone under the pressure of a number of years. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate: CaCO3). Like most other sedimentary rocks, limestones are composed of grains; however, most grains in limestone grains are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids, intraclasts, and extraclasts. Some limestones do not consist of grains at all and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite. i.e. travertine.

Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert also known as chalcedony, flint, jasper, etc or siliceous skeletal fragment (sponge spicules, diatoms, radiolarians), as well as varying amounts of clay, silt and sand sized terrestrial detritus carried in by rivers. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite and leave these shells behind after the organism dies. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, building upon past generations.

Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks.Limestones may also form in both lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Because of impurities, such as clay, sand, organic remains, iron oxide and other materials, many limestones exhibit different colors, especially on weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, clastic, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, quartz, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. Folk and Dunham classifications are used to describe limestones more precisely.

Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution that is supersaturated with chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells.

During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny) limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Limestone is partially soluble, especially in acid, and therefore forms many erosional landforms. These include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes, caves and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known as karsts. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks, but more resistant than most other sedimentary rocks. Limestone is therefore usually associated with hills and down land and occurs in regions with other sedimentary rocks, typically clays.

Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth’s surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. Examples include the Burren in Co. Clare, Ireland; the Verdon Gorge in France; Malham Cove in North Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight, England; on Faro near the Swedish island of Gotland, the Niagara Escarpment in Canada/United States, Notch Peak in Utah, the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam and the hills around the Lijiang River and Guilin city in China.

The Great Pyramid of Giza. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the structure is made entirely from limestone. Courthouse built of limestone in Manhattan, Kansas A limestone plate with a negative map of Moosburg in Bavaria is prepared for a lithography print.

Limestone was most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Train stations, banks and other structures from that era are normally made of limestone. Limestone is used as a facade on some skyscrapers, but only in thin plates for covering rather than solid blocks. In the United States, Indiana, most notably the Bloomington area, has long been a source of high quality quarried limestone, called Indiana limestone. Many famous buildings in London are built from Portland limestone.

The Florida Keys, islands off the south coast of Florida, are composed mainly of oolitic limestone (the Lower Keys) and the carbonate skeletons of coral reefs (the Upper Keys), which thrived in the area during interglacial periods when sea level was higher than at present. The world’s largest limestone quarry is at Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company in Rogers City, Michigan.

Advantages of Limestone

The durability that limestone cladding provides makes it the most favorite stone, which has been utilized both in indoor as well as outdoor constructions. We offer you the great and unique designs for limestone so that you can use any of them according to your places. In fact, limestone cladding offers a very natural and an attention drawing appearance of your home as well as office décor. With noticeable and fascinating and a wide range of color shades and designs it is available in, it looks equally amazing in traditional as well as recent day contextual setting. This stone is normally found in natural shades of cream, gold, brown, gray, white, yellow and black. With us, you are going to find out a huge variety of great designs and colors that you can choose according to your home and workplace designs.

The color of the limestone is acquired from the presence of clay, iron oxide and many other types of minerals. It is important to know that limestone, which is to be utilized in your conventional life style and in areas such as a study room, living room and so on, which is normally being ornamented with old wooden furniture. We offer you suggestions for the utilization of limestone in your areas so that they can look awesome and interesting. We have experience of many years in order to use for our clients from different regions of the world.

Features Of Limestone

Limestone cladding provides secure, safe and profound exterior, it offers protection for your home from outer particles and turn into solid durability. Additionally, the enduringness and the beauty of the limestone will offer you the opportunity to remain stress and tension free for a large period of time in the future by giving you a good and valuable return on your ventures. We are one of the largest and most popular stone suppliers Melbourne that deals with different types of stone such as granite, quartz, travertine, marble and of course limestone too.

Uses of Limestone

Limestone is very common in architecture, especially in North America and Europe. Many landmarks across the world, including the Great Pyramid and its associated Complex in Giza, Egypt, are made of limestone. So many buildings in Kingston, Canada were constructed from it that it is nicknamed the ‘Limestone City’.On the island of Malta, a variety of limestone called Globigerina limestone was for a long time the only building material available, and is still very frequently used on all types of buildings and sculptures.

Limestone is readily available and relatively easy to cut into blocks or more elaborate carving. It is also long-lasting and stands up well to exposure. However, it is a very heavy material, making it impractical for tall buildings, and relatively expensive as a building material.

Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages in the areas where it occurred since it is hard, is durable, and commonly occurs in easily accessible surface exposures. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England.

Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive to acid solutions, making acid rain a significant problem to the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch limestone, which should only be cleaned with a neutral or mild alkaline-based cleaner.