Granite – The Durable Stone
The word granite comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock. Granite is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock. Granites usually have a medium to coarse grained texture. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. Granites can be pink to dark gray or even black, depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills. Granite is nearly always massive, hard and tough, and therefore it has gained widespread use as a construction stone. The average density of granite is 2.75 g/cm3.
Characteristics of the granite: It is totally crystalline, extraordinary resistance, totally natural origin, noble aging, is not possible to be fixed on any support, it offers isolation against the humidity, the changes of temperature and the aquatic contamination. The bordered one resists, the wearing down and outdoors, the little porous surface, facilitates its cleaning. The betas are like small dotty.
Origin of Granite
Granite is currently known only on Earth where it forms a major part of continental crust. Granite often occurs as relatively small, less than 100 km? stock masses (stocks) and in batholiths that are often associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are often associated with the margins of granitic intrusions. In some locations very coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods, although much of it is of Precambrian age. Granitic rock is widely distributed throughout the continental crust of the Earth and is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin sedimentary veneer of the continents.
Types of Granite Stone
Granite is available in three main varieties of granite, which are as follows-
Includes quartz, plagioclase, biotite and K-feldspar.
Also called Syenitic granite, contains hornblende as well as mica.
Composed mainly of Tourmaline, this variety of granite exhibits a wide range of colors and is very rarely available as white or colorless variety.
Of these three varieties, Biotite-granite is most prevalent and forms a very suitable building stone for durability and decoration. These rocks, by reason of their massive nature and homogeneous grain, are eminently adapted for monumental and architectural work as well as for massive masonries. Their wide range in appearance and colors white, pink, red, grey, black, etc. renders the stones highly ornamental and effective for a variety of decorative uses.
Uses of Granite
Granite is used in antiquity. The Red Pyramid of Egypt (c.26th century BC), named for the light crimson hue of its exposed granite surfaces, is the third largest of Egyptian pyramids. Menkaure’s Pyramid, likely dating to the same era, was constructed of limestone and granite blocks. The Great Pyramid of Giza (c.2580 BC) contains a huge granite sarcophagus fashioned of “Red Aswan Granite.”
Granite has been extensively used as a dimension stone and as flooring tiles in public and commercial buildings and monuments. Because of its abundance, granite was commonly used to build foundations for homes in New England. The Granite Railway, America’s first railroad, was built to haul granite from the quarries in Quincy, Massachusetts, to the Neponset River in the 1820s.
With increasing amounts of acid rain in parts of the world, granite has begun to supplant marble as a monument material, since it is much more durable. Polished granite is also a popular choice for kitchen countertops due to its high durability and aesthetic qualities. In building and for countertops, the term “granite” is often applied to all igneous rocks with large crystals, and not specifically to those with a granitic composition.
In some areas granite is used for gravestones and memorials. Granite is a hard stone and requires skill to carve by hand. Modern methods of carving include using computer-controlled rotary bits and sandblasting over a rubber stencil. Leaving the letters, numbers and emblems exposed on the stone, the blaster can create virtually any kind of artwork or epitaph.
Common use for granite today is in building and remodeling projects such as vanity and kitchen countertops. The look, feel, durability, and re-sale value of a granite kitchen countertop is unmatched by any other solid surface material on today’s market.
It is used like material for construction, in the covering of facades and architecture in general, as well as the elaboration of structures such as bridges, retaining walls and jetties in ports. Also it is used to construct curtains of prey and as material base in the road construction. Ornaments: It is used like material to elaborate ornamentals figures and monuments. Manufactures: In the manufacture of cylinders to grind pulp in mills of the industry wastebasket.
To name a few -Tropical Green Paradiso, Kerala White, Pink and Grey Granite, Monumental red granite which is very coarse, Kashmir White, Tiger Skin, Bash Paradiso, Colombo Juparana, Sea Green, Turaiyur Blue, Hosur Gray, Raw Silk, Ruby Red, Fish Belly, Tumkur Pink, Sira Grey, Savan Rose, English Teak, Hasan Green Tiger Black, Chilly Red, Pista Green, Black Galaxy, Daisy Blue, Blue Pearl, Purplish Granite Porphyry, Mokalsar Green, Silver galaxy, Ivory Shine,
Decoration with Granite stones
Tan Brown, Steel gray, China Pink, Sea weed green, Spotty Black, Chilka Blue, Red Pearl, Spotty Ribbon Gneiss, Deep Pink Granite, American/ Cobra / Emerald Green.